At the turn of the century, Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVDs) have become the leading cause of mortality in India. This epidemiological transition is largely because of the increase in the prevalence of CVDs and CVD risk factors in India.
According to a new national study, Ischemic heart disease, where blood supply to the heart is restricted, is the leading cause of death in India, causing 17.8% deaths in 2016, increasing the death burden to 104% since 1990. In 2016, the estimated prevalence of CVDs in India was estimated to be 54.5 million. Further, according to a report by Global Burden of Diseases in 2016, 1.7 million Indians die due to heart disease out of the world’s 17.3 million deaths.
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Case-control studies have reported that important risk factors for CVD in India are dyslipidaemias, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, abdominal obesity, psychosocial stress, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity along with genetic predisposition.